prints as an approximation to the traditional mathematical notation for expr.

Details and Options


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Basic Examples  (3)

Formatting of a trigonometric function:

Formatting of a hypergeometric function:

Partial derivative of an arbitrary function:

Scope  (9)

Basic Objects  (2)

Integer, Rational, Real, and Complex numbers:

Arbitrary-precision Real and Complex numbers:

Special constants:

Characters and strings of characters:

Control characters for strings:


Special Input Forms  (4)

Different ways of representing Power expressions:

Special typeset expressions:

The same expressions entered as typical input:

Different list structures:

Mathematical functions with special representations:

Special Output Forms  (3)

Some objects use a special output representation:

Compare the TraditionalForm with the underlying FullForm of the expression:

Some objects use an elided output representation:

The elided information is visible in the InputForm:

Graphic objects display as graphics:

Applications  (2)

Euler's formula in traditional mathematical notation:

A triangle inequality:

Properties & Relations  (4)

When an input evaluates to TraditionalForm[expr], TraditionalForm does not appear in the output:

Out is assigned the value x2, not TraditionalForm[x^2]:

TraditionalForm is two-dimensional:

StandardForm is two-dimensional and unambiguous for input:

OutputForm uses only keyboard characters:

InputForm and FullForm provide one-dimensional formatting:

Use ToBoxes to see the underlying box structure:

Use ToExpression to convert the boxes to the original expression:

Add formatting via Format:

Possible Issues  (2)

TraditionalForm is ambiguous, i.e. different expressions can display similarly:

The following box structure has similar display:

When interpreting the boxes, a particular interpretation is selected:

Wolfram Languagegenerated formatting includes data for unambiguous interpretation:

Even when an output omits TraditionalForm from the top level, it is not stripped from subexpressions:

The output does not have TraditionalForm in it:

However, the variable e does have TraditionalForm in it, which may affect subsequent evaluations:

The integral is not evaluated due to the intervening TraditionalForm:

Assign variables first and then apply TraditionalForm to the result to maintain computability:

Neat Examples  (1)

Nested roots:

Wolfram Research (1996), TraditionalForm, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2008).


Wolfram Research (1996), TraditionalForm, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2008).


Wolfram Language. 1996. "TraditionalForm." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research. Last Modified 2008.


Wolfram Language. (1996). TraditionalForm. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from


@misc{reference.wolfram_2024_traditionalform, author="Wolfram Research", title="{TraditionalForm}", year="2008", howpublished="\url{}", note=[Accessed: 24-July-2024 ]}


@online{reference.wolfram_2024_traditionalform, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={TraditionalForm}, year={2008}, url={}, note=[Accessed: 24-July-2024 ]}